Adaptation and Agronomic Performance of Domesticated Moroccan Oat (Avena magna ssp. domestica) Lines under Subsistence Farming Conditions at Multiple Locations in Morocco


1. Introduction

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Plant Materials

2.2. Experimental Sites

2.3. Experimental Design

2.4. Measurements and Observations

  • HI: harvest index
  • GYH: grain yield (q/ha)
  • DYH: dry matter yield (q/ha).
  • Ngrains: number of seeds per plant
  • Pgrains: grain weight per plant
  • TSW: thousand-seed weight

2.5. Statistical Analyses

  • SSA1: sum of squares of the interaction component of the first axis of the PCA
  • SSA2: sum of squares of the interaction component of the second axis of the PCA
  • IPCA1: ACP score of the interaction first axis component
  • IPCA2: score of the interaction second axis component.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Intra-Locality Analyses

3.1.1. Assessments of Disease Tolerances

3.1.2. Analyses of Agro-Morphological Traits

3.1.3. Analyses of Productivity Traits

3.2. Interlocality Analyses

3.2.1. Three-Factor ANOVA’s and CV’s

3.2.2. Correlation Matrix

3.2.3. Principal Component Analysis

3.2.4. AMMI Analysis

Author Contributions


Institutional Review Board Statement

Informed Consent Statement

Data Availability Statement


Conflicts of Interest


  1. Ladizinsky, G. Domestication via hybridization of the wild tetraploid oats Avena magna and A. murphyi. Theor. Appl. Genet. 1995, 91, 639–646. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Ladizinsky, G. A new species of Avena from Sicily, possibly the tetraploid progenitor of hexaploid oats. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 1998, 45, 263–269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Jellen, E.N.; Ladizinsky, G. Giemsa C-banding in Avena insularis Ladizinsky. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 2000, 47, 227–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Zhou, X.; Jellen, E.N.; Murphy, J.P. Progenitor germplasm of domesticated hexaploid oat. Crop Sci. 1999, 39, 1208–1214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Jellen, E.N.; Beard, J. Geographical distribution of a chromosome 7C and 17 intergenomic translocation in cultivated oat. Crop Sci. 2000, 40, 256–263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Loskutov, I.G. On evolutionary pathways of Avena species. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 2008, 55, 211–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Oliver, R.E.; Jellen, E.N.; Ladizinsky, G.; Korol, A.B.; Kilian, A.; Beard, J.L.; Dumlupinar, Z.; Wisniewski-Morehead, N.H.; Svedin, E.; Coon, M.; et al. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map with markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L. Theor. Appl. Genet. 2011, 123, 1159–1171. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Ladizinsky, G. Development of protein rich tetraploid oat–current state and prospects. In Proceedings of the American Oat Workers Conference Abstracts, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 13–16 July 2014; Available online: (accessed on 20 February 2020).
  9. Jackson, E.W. High Protein Oat Species. W.I.P.O. Patent Application WO 2017/070104 A1, 27 April 2017. [Google Scholar]
  10. Schilling, J.; Freier, K.P.; Hertig, E.; Scheffran, J. Climate change, vulnerability and adaptation in North Africa with focus on Morocco. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2012, 156, 12–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Barouaca, H. Situation of malnutrition in Morocco: Results after 40 years of struggle. Nutr. Clin. Diet. Hosp. 2012, 32 (Suppl. 2), 76–81. [Google Scholar]
  12. Zobel, R.W.; Wright, M.J.; Gauch, H.G. Statistical analysis of a yield trial. Agron. J. 1998, 80, 388–393. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Purchase, J.L. Parametric Analysis to Describe Genotype x Environment Interaction and Yield Stability in Winter Wheat. Ph.D. Thesis, University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 1997. [Google Scholar]
  14. Wardofa, G.A.; Mohammed, H.; Asnake, D.; Alemu, T. Genotype X Environment Interaction and Yield Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes in central Ethiopia. J. Plant Breed. Genet. 2019, 7, 87–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Gauch, H.G.; Piepho, H.-P.; Annicchiarico, P. Statistical Analysis of Yield Trials by AMMI and GGE: Further Considerations. Crop. Sci. 2008, 48, 866–889. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. R Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing; R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna, Austria, 2013; Available online: (accessed on 25 February 2021).
  17. Peterson, R.F.; Campbell, A.B.; Hannah, A.E. A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity on leaves and stems of cereals. Can. J. Res. 2011, 26, 496–500. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Al Faïz, C.; Saïdi, S.; Jaritz, G. Avoine fourragère (Avena sativa L.). In Production et Utilisation des Cultures Fourragères au Maroc; Jaritz, G., Bounejmate, M., Eds.; INRA: Rabat, Morocco, 1997; pp. 209–224. [Google Scholar]
  19. El Yamani, M.; Hill, J.H. Aphid vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus in west-central Morocco. J. Phytopath. 1991, 133, 105–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Adugna, W.; Labuschagne, M.T. Genotype-environment interactions and phenotypic stability analyses of linseed in Ethiopia. Plant Breed. 2002, 121, 66–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Anderson, C.H.; Read, D.W.L. Water-use efficiency of some varieties of wheat, oats, barley, and flax grown in the greenhouse. Can. J. Plant Sci. 1966, 46, 375–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]




Context Global Development® (CGD) is a non-profit organization that leads agricultural and social impact programs worldwide.

Love podcasts or audiobooks? Learn on the go with our new app.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Context Global Development

Context Global Development

Context Global Development® (CGD) is a non-profit organization that leads agricultural and social impact programs worldwide.

More from Medium

Exnetwork Connects with Iagon in Reshaping Cloud Storage

Launching Container inside a Docker container

Understanding the Relationship between CWE and CAPEC Through Two Scenarios

Telegram — how private and secure it is?